Even with mid-February’s chill, ice, and snow, there are signs that spring is on the way. On a recent walk I noticed that the flower buds on Sugar Maples (Acer saccharum) and Red Maples (Acer rubrum) are beginning to swell. Trees have evolved internal mechanisms that sense winter’s passing. These mechanisms are influenced by an accumulation of temperature swings through time. These combinations of temperature changes will eventually lead to budburst, which in this case leads to flower buds bursting open. Sap is also flowing upward from the roots now through the xylem, so maple sugaring season is upon us.
Look now in forested wetlands and along slow-moving streams and you might find the first wildflower of spring: Eastern Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), a plant with amazing adaptations (I wrote about them in an April 2020 post).
Last week I heard a male Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) singing “peter-peter” for the first time since last fall. A bird’s brain has hormones that, when activated by increasing day length, trigger the bird to start singing and defending its territory in preparation for attracting a mate and nesting. The Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) are now joining in.
Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) have started drumming. They don’t drum to find food, but use a dead or hollow tree limb to enhance the sound. They drum as a territorial “call” and to court a mate.
The American Robin (Turdus migratorius) has been called the first bird of spring. Not so—some robins are winter residents here and don’t fly south. In winter they change their diet from worms and insects to berries in wetlands and other habitats. Among northward spring migrants, the first true “bird of spring” is the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Look in freshwater marshes and overgrown fields now for the males, who arrive first to set up territories. Listen for their “konk-a-ree” song.
Love is in the air for resident Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus). They are pairing up and courting. I can hear a Red-shouldered’s loud “keer-keer-keer-keer” as I write this. In early March look for their amazing aerial courtship displays, complete with pairs diving toward each other from great heights.
It’s also Valentine’s Day for the Eastern Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and for the first time since fall I just smelled one. It’s the beginning of the mating season for them, from now until the end of April. After mating, females go back to their burrows and in about 60 days give birth to an average of six kits. These skunks don’t hibernate like the Woodchuck (Marmota monax), but are catnappers, sleeping on and off throughout the winter. They’re mostly living off their accumulated fat and often lose about half of it by spring.
It’s a great time to start a nature journal to log the many changes you can see now. Happy Spring!